Technological Advancements Were Made Possible Due to The Principles of The Project Management Methodologies Used to Develop Websites and Software

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Introduction

 

A unique product or service is the results of project management, once a project has been undertaken to create a quantifiable deliverable, with a specific start and end dates (Abyad, 2018). Milestones and completion dates are part of a project, that is managed using the basic principles of project management (Abyad, 2018). Scope, time cost, and quality are the four known constraints of a project, and it is a challenge to achieve all the goals of a project while maintaining a level of responsibility to adhere to the constraints mentioned earlier (Abyad, 2018).

Project management principles can be divided into different methodologies and approaches when it comes to developing a website (Ungureanu & Ungureanu, 2014). If a project manager wants to finish the development of a website or an application, using project management, there is no doubt that the project will be finished on time, meeting all the requirements and under budget. A basic skill that a project management team must have, is the ability to identify a project management methodology and use it in their project endeavor, to avoid failure and reduce risks (Ungureanu & Ungureanu, 2014). In website development, it is important to guide the design and development team, throughout the life-cycle of project management (Ungureanu & Ungureanu, 2014). The development of software products is becoming increasingly complex, due to demands to be launched faster with high-quality; therefore, project management methodologies have been evolving and becoming better to develop website and applications (Banica et, al. 2017). The software development life-cycle, have shifted from a classical methodology to a more high-quality and more efficient methodology, such as the Agile methodologies (Banica et, al. 2017). It is important to study the different project management methodologies usually used, to develop a website. Project manager and team members must be able to face and overcome challenges, to deal with the complex project problems, encountered during IT projects, such as the development of a website (Rumeser & Emsley, 2018). The successful completion of a project is completely dependent on the ability of a project manager, to use the strictly defined combination of practices, that follow a logical method to best plan, develop and control a project that involves the development of a website or an application. The different types and methods used in project management, to create a website or an application, are reviewed in this literature review. This study will further advance research of the different types of project management methodologies, which exist today; by giving the reader an insight on the different types of project management methodologies trends that exist today, to develop websites. This literature review will also compare and contrast each methodology, to determine which methodology is the most appropriate to develop a website or an application and under which circumstances. Organizations need to improve their project/product success rate, therefore, guidance in understanding how to best integrate project management methods, and principles into their project is necessary (ALBAIDHANI et al., 2018). New details on practical management systems, need to be unleashed, to understand how different variables in a project, move through the life-cycle of a website development project (ALBAIDHANI et al., 2018). Time, cost and scope have been the major constraints that can be used to measure a project's success; however, this study will also shed light on effectiveness, relevance and overall sustainability of a project, to determine its success (ALBAIDHANI et al., 2018). The principles of project management, have been used by many organizations, to achieve strategic objectives (ABBASI & JAAFARI, 2018). Business benefits through projects is what project management is all about, which is why more than twenty percent of the economic activities, happening globally, are executed through projects (ABBASI & JAAFARI, 2018). Therefore, it is important to use project management techniques and methodologies, because they make an important contribution globally to the creation of value for customers and organizations (ABBASI & JAAFARI, 2018). It is important for this study to find recent publications and the different development of emerging technology, which is used to manage projects that involve the development of a website. It is also central for this literature review to find the current status of project management to develop websites. This research paper will also evaluate the evolution of project management, in a website development project, in different institutes, organization, and even countries.

Literature review

Program Management of Websites and Software development projects using the waterfall methodology

This section highlights the contribution that the waterfall methodology has given to projects, which involve the development of websites. Software development is achieved through projects, which follow the waterfall model, which is a type of process used to conceive, develop and create a product (Kalso, 2017). Developers are more focused when they follow the series of phases, that are involved in the waterfall methodology. Parts of the project are developed in phases, so that developers spend time and effort on the most important parts of the project and not on other parts which may be rendered obsolete at the end of the project, due to the requirements (Kalso, 2017). The waterfall methodology can be modified, in order to complete a website development project. For example, according to Eunice et al. (2017), a modified waterfall methodology is used to develop a web application. Requirement engineering, planning, designing, coding, testing, integration, and development are the modified waterfall methodology activities, which were adopted in the web application development project (Eunice et al., 2017). The system developed by Eunice et al. (2017), is designed to address poor customer service problems. The use of a manual systematic approach used by the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) for customer care, has been a driving force behind the development of a web-based customer care application (Eunice et al., 2017). The system would be able to address bill payments, customer complaints and capturing, sorting and disseminating customer's information (Eunice et al., 2017). PHP is a web server side scripting programming language, which was used to implement the web-based application. JavaScript which is a client-side scripting language and MySQL which is a database management system was used as well, to implement the web application. Apache was used as the web server and an API map application such as Google map was utilized, to demonstrate the effectiveness of customer care in a mapping system (Eunice et al., 2017). Different types of project management methodologies can be used, to develop websites and applications. Adequate customer service should be the center for any company, that is delivering service to people (Eunice et al., 2017). If organizations would like to for their website, which has become a standard tool in corporate communication, to contribute to their larger business goals, then careful development and management of their website are essential (Chase, 2004). The waterfall methodology can also be used to help deliver the project on time, use the least amount of resources and be under budget. In a research paper delivered by Bassil, (2012), a simulation of the different phases of the waterfall software development life-cycle (SDLC) is conducted. The Simphony.NET tool is utilized, to proceed with the simulation, which would help project managers, determine how to utilize the minimum number of expenses, workers and hours, while achieving maximum productivity in an IT-related projects, such as the development of a website or an application (Bassil, 2012). The simulation also helps project managers, to decrease wasted and idle time, by keeping all employees and resources busy at all times (Bassil, 2012). It is vital to find the optimal number of resources, which should be used, during each phase of a project (Bassil, 2012). It is confusing for project managers and directors to achieve the maximum productivity while using the minimum number of resources, it has certainly become a dilemma (Bassil, 2012). A simulation of the waterfall SDLC is very helpful in determining the approximate number of resources necessary to accomplish a project, that involves software development (Bassil, 2012). The simulation would help project managers to manage multiple software development projects, in order to allocate the right amount of resources, within each phase of all projects, as they come down (Bassil, 2012). The simulation consisted of running the simulation, examining the results, and make a change to the waterfall methodology, according to the results provided by the simulation (Bassil, 2012). The optimal results would be reached by repeating the steps of the simulation as many times as possible (Bassil, 2012). Experiments demonstrated that the simulation of the waterfall methodology, can help project managers achieve the optimal numbers of resources, that would be needed for their projects, when projects are expected to be done, fast using the minimum amount of resources available (Bassil, 2012).

Program Management of Websites and Software development projects using the Agile methodology

IT teams do recognize that the agile software development and project management approach, is very useful, to keep their client in the loop during the project phases (Codington-Lacerte, 2013). Flexibility, collaboration, efficiency, simplicity and delivering within short timeframes working products to end users; is the set of computer programming methodologies of Agile software development (Saran, 2013). Due to impending innovations and devaluing methods to employees and customers, which other conventional software development methodologies brought, developers created the agile methodology, as an alternative (Saran, 2013). The agile methodology allows clients to interact with their product as it is being developed, on a regular basis (Codington-Lacerte, 2013). When the complete project is delivered, the client will never say that the deliverables do not meet the initial requirements (Codington-Lacerte, 2013). Traditional software development methodologies, used in project management, are not suitable, for complex project, with rapid changing requirements, for such projects the agile methodology can be used (Soni & Kohli, 2017). In a paper written by Patwardhan et al. (2016) a DevOps team move away from the waterfall methodology, to create an internal data dictionary web applications, by adopting the agile methodology. The DevOps team was able to identify advantages, that would be gained from switching to an agile methodology environment to completion of the internal data dictionary web application (Patwardhan et al., 2016). The need to develop a web application containing information about the different databases, created when it was discovered that little documentation is available, about the databases used to store information, for web applications that were built on microservices architecture (Patwardhan et al., 2016). The scrum method was used to practice the agile methodology, to develop the web application internal data dictionary (Patwardhan et al., 2016). The scrum team, the scrum master, the product owner, and the development team, were all the various roles defined to follow the Scrum methodology (Patwardhan et al., 2016). The pilot program revealed that a transition to the agile methodology can, help track the progress of the project, help find an immediate resolution to issues faced, demonstrated that the adoption of the agile methodology for a large-scale project is possible (Patwardhan et al., 2016). Due to shifts in information technology (IT), customer requirement, legal expectations, and many other factors, software and websites need to stay dynamic and responsive. The agile methodology, allow project management to meet all the challenges faced, by software development projects, due to the fact that agile methods allow self-organized, cross-functional teams, work with the client to gather the requirements, design and develop the new software or website (Dearstyne, 2018). The agile software development methodology can also be integrated, with the cloud computing environment development techniques, which can help the agile methodology, overcome the challenges faced (Younas et al., 2018). The systematic Literature Review conducted by Younas et al., (2018), demonstrated that cloud computing techniques could be used in an agile development environment, by studying thirty-seven studies from 2010 – 2017. In software engineering, agile development in a cloud computing environment is an important area of study (Younas et al., 2018). Surprisingly, scalability, transparency, face-to-face communication, availability of experts, smooth control of development and resource management are some of the challenges faced, by program managers, who use the agile development methods and techniques to develop their software and websites (Younas et al., 2018). Cloud computing provides an environment, which allows developers to quickly test new ideas, in the marketplace, while dealing with all the challenges faced by agile methodologies (Younas et al., 2018). Through data sharing, prioritizing tasks and providing infrastructure (hardware and software) cloud computing has the potential of reducing the cost, of agile development (Younas et al., 2018). Installation procedures, software patches, and re-installation, is eliminated, in an agile development environment, by applying the cloud computing techniques; which enhance the development process (Younas et al., 2018).

 

Compare and Contrast the Waterfall and Agile Methodologies to Choose the Correct Methodology for a Particular website or software Development Project.

It is without a doubt that one of the most challenging parts of developing a website, is choosing the right methodology to follow. Both the waterfall and the agile methodologies have been proven to be great methods of developing websites and software, based on the type of website being developed and the number of people involved in the project. It can be very confusing to lead projects or programs, where several teams are involved, working in different delivery models (Grech, 2015). The delivery of the project can be at risks, when the projects are not managed correctly, using the correct methodology (Grech, 2015). All current fields such as medicine, business, education, and agriculture, have benefited tremendously, from all the innovative contributions, made by the IT industry (Dima & Maassen, 2018). Software programmers have been the driving force, behind the reason why the IT industry has become one of the leading industries worldwide (Dima & Maassen, 2018). The biggest division in the software development world is perhaps the adoption of the agile delivery vs the adoption of the waterfall approach to delivering software or a website (Grech, 2015). New versions of products are needed rapidly, to satisfy new customer needs; therefore, the waterfall and the agile methodologies have to become better methodologies, in order to deliver software and websites, that meet client's requirements (Dima & Maassen, 2018). A waterfall methodology is a conservative approach to software development, where feedback is only available when the product is released to the customer. The agile model, however, is a more radical model, where changing requirements, allow for a project involving software or website development to be flexible (Dima & Maassen, 2018). The analysis of the two main product software development models is conducted by Maassen (2018). The company Avira Soft S.R.L. Implemented both models, therefore, the analysis was based on their implementation. The benefits of using the agile model, at the company were emphasized, when it was compared to the previews product development, which followed the waterfall methodology (Maassen, 2018). The paper written by Maassen (2018), demonstrate the evolution of IT product development business models. Due to increased competition, the need for continuous adoption and innovation has increased tremendously (Maassen, 2018). The waterfall model was improved by the agile model; however new challenges also emerge, due to the culture of the organization, how team member communicate, and pressure for continuous improvements (Maassen, 2018). The basis for future software and website development strategies are undoubted, the waterfall and the agile methodologies (Maassen, 2018). Big data is a buzzword, which has been around for quite some time, to manage all the information, that is being generated on a daily basis, new software and websites have to be developed. In a study conducted by Kisielnicki & Misiak (2017), a comparison of the agile with traditional methods is conducted, through the study of the latest market trends in business intelligence (BI) systems implementation. In a case study conducted at a large telecommunications company, which has 350 business intelligence system users, research was based on interviews with seven users and five project participants, as well as the use of internal company documents (Kisielnicki & Misiak 2017). The study demonstrated that traditional methods of BI system implementations are not as efficient as they used to be anymore. Traditional approaches, such as the waterfall methodology, do not allow BI system implementations to meet customer targets (Kisielnicki & Misiak 2017). The delivery of the actual product in iterations, have proved that the agile methodology approach to BI system implementation, is indeed better for the end user, because it provides value in a more shorter time (Kisielnicki & Misiak 2017). BI methods of implementation, need to move away from the waterfall methodology and adopt the agile methodologies, in order to meet customer's requirement (Kisielnicki & Misiak 2017). The most required systems in the markets are BI system; however, too many organization struggle with implementing BI systems in their environment, because the implementation methodologies used, is not as effective as the agile methodology (Kisielnicki & Misiak 2017). It is no doubt that the instruments used to develop software today, have to become better, today's methods not only need to be improved to develop software faster, but they should also aim at being flexible, to sustain changing requirements. The methodological instruments used in software development have been impacted, in the last two decades, due to the tremendous evolution of information and communications technology (Stoica, 2016). The ability to adapt to continuously changing market conditional is a skill that every organization, must have, regarding project management of software and website development (Stoica, 2016). In the study conducted by Stoica, (2016) elements that impact the agility of developing software products, were identified, when using Scrumban and the waterfall model. The study also identified the agile methodology as an easier way to develop software and website applications (Stoica, 2016). Organizations must be able to adapt, to the growing flexibility of the economic environment, which provides different business opportunities (Stoica, 2016). The agile development model, is a good method, that organizations can follow, to develop software and website applications, even when faced, with a varied request and changing requirements (Stoica, 2016). It is obvious and clear that companies will choose the methodology, which serves their bottom line better, which is profits. When website and software development projects, are successful and continuously adds, value to the organization, the model or method used to finish the project, would always be the preferred method (Veiga, 2017). The differences between the waterfall and the agile development methodologies are explained and clarified in a paper written by Veiga, (2017). The study also explains the reason why many companies are moving from waterfall methodology to the agile methodology, due to website and software development project success (Veiga, 2017). Across industry the adoption of the agile methodologies, have been on the rise, SCRUM, KANBAN, and Extreme Programming are some of the agile methodologies, which are being adopted by organizations, since 2008 (Veiga, 2017).

 

Trends of the Agile, Waterfall and other Methodologies, in Project Managemen of Software Development

The agile methodology has allowed for a software development team to be able to deliver more value to their clients, faster. Systems are not developed from scratch anymore, instead, developers must understand how to manage system integration, due to the availability of system development tools, rapid change in technology, the growth of cloud computing and the evolution of mobile computing (Abdulla & Ning, 2015). Development methods, have to be researched furthermore, to adapt to the current development trends that taking place in the IT industry (Abdulla & Ning, 2015). The software development life-cycle is an aspect of software development, which have made a significant impact, on the success or failure of software and website development projects (Mahdikhani & Abbasifard, 2016). Developers can better manage their project, by utilizing the correct methodology, for the right software development project (Mahdikhani & Abbasifard, 2016).

 

References:

 

ABBASI, A., & JAAFARI, A. (2018). Project Management Research and INDUSTRY-FOCUSED INNOVATIONS. Journal of Modern Project Management, 60–69. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=130038441&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Abdulla F. Ally, & Zhang Ning. (2015). What the Current System Development Trends tell us about Systems Development Methodologies: Toward explaining SSDAM, Agile and IDEF0 Methodologies. Journal of Applied Computer Science & Mathematics, Vol 9, Iss 19, Pp 9-15 (2015), (19), 9. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsdoj&AN=edsdoj.baf68a55eb08422dadb9e04ca68cf1ad&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Abyad, A. (2018). Project Management, Motivation Theories and Process Management. Middle East Journal of Business.13(4): 18-22 . DOI: 10.5742/MEJB.2018.93502

 

ALBAIDHANI, I., ROMERO-TORRES, A., & MEDDEB, B. (2018). Prodjecting the Future: New Product-Project Development: The Prod-Ject Management System. Journal of Modern Project Management, 108–129. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umuc.edu/10.19255/JMPM01708

 

Alina Mihaela Dima, & Maria Alexandra Maassen. (2018). From Waterfall to Agile software: Development models in the IT sector, 2006 to 2018. Impacts on company management. Journal of International Studies, Vol 11, Iss 2 (2018), (2). https://doi-org.ezproxy.umuc.edu/10.14254/2071-8330.2018/11-2/21

 

Akinloye Bolanle Eunice, Anthony Mfonobong Umoren, & Idorenyin Markson. (2017). Design of Web-Based Customer Relation Management Application for Power Distribution Company: A Case Study of PHCN Owerri Business Unit. Mathematical and Software Engineering, Vol 3, Iss 1, Pp 108-123 (2017), (1), 108. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsdoj&AN=edsdoj.be2c6888326046d892fcf946cc9efc6b&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

BANICA, L., RADULESCU, M., ROSCA, D., & HAGIU, A. (2017). Is DevOps another Project Management Methodology? Informatica Economica, 21(3), 39–51. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umuc.edu/10.12948/issn14531305/21.3.2017.04

 

Bassil, Y. (2012). A Simulation Model for the Waterfall Software Development Life Cycle. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsarx&AN=edsarx.1205.6904&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Chase, E. (2004). Project managing website development. Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management, (43), 22–23. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14687803&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Codington-Lacerte, C. (2013). Agile software development. Salem Press Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=90558239&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Dearstyne, B. W. (2018). Achieving Nimble IM Programs Through Agile Methodology. Information Management Journal52(4), 26. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=130662247&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Grech, T. (2015). The intersection of agile and waterfall. Industrial Engineer: IE47(8), 47–49. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eih&AN=109483551&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Kalso, R. (2017). Waterfall model. Salem Press Encyclopedia of Science. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=125600148&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Kisielnicki Jerzy, & Misiak Anna Maria. (2017). Effectiveness of Agile Compared to Waterfall Implementation Methods in It Projects: Analysis Based on Business Intelligence Projects. Foundations of Management, Vol 9, Iss 1, Pp 273-286 (2017), (1), 273. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umuc.edu/10.1515/fman-2017-0021

 

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Maassen Maria Alexandra. (2018). Product development models in the IT sector-From Waterfall to Agile Project Management Model s in the case of AVIRA SOFT S.R.L. Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Excellence, Vol 12, Iss 1, Pp 568-578 (2018), (1), 568. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umuc.edu/10.2478/picbe-2018-0051

 

Mahdikhani, F., & Abbasifard, M. R. (2016). Modeling Software Development Methodologies: A Logic Based Approach. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsarx&AN=edsarx.1607.06324&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Marian STOICA, Bogdan GHILIC-MICU, Marinela MIRCEA, & Cristian USCATU. (2016). Analyzing Agile Development – from Waterfall Style to Scrumban. Informatică Economică, Vol 20, Iss 4, Pp 5-14 (2016), (4), 5. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umuc.edu/10.12948/issn14531305/20.4.2016.01

 

Patwardhan, A., Kidd, J., Urena, T., & Rajgopalan, A. (2016). Embracing Agile methodology during DevOps Developer Internship Program. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsarx&AN=edsarx.1607.01893&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

RUMESER, D., & EMSLEY, M. (2018). A systematic review of PROJECT MANAGEMENT SERIOUS GAMES: Identifying gaps, trends, and directions for future research. Journal of Modern Project Management, 48–59. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=130038440&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Saran, C. (2013). How to get the best from agile and waterfall development approaches. Computer Weekly, 4. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=86374873&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Soni, D., & Kohli, P. J. (2017). Cost Estimation Model for Web Applications using Agile Software Development Methodology. Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology25(3), 931–938. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=iih&AN=125030070&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Ungureanu, A., & Ungureanu, A. (2014). Methodologies used in Project Management. Annals of Spiru Haret University Economic Series, Vol 14(2), 47-54. Retrieved from https://doi-org.ezproxy.umuc.edu/10.26458/1425

 

Veiga, A. P. (2017). Project Success in Agile Development Projects. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsarx&AN=edsarx.1711.06851&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

Younas, M., Jawawi, D. N. A., Ghani, I., Fries, T., & Kazmi, R. (2018). Agile development in the cloud computing environment: A systematic review. Information & Software Technology103, 142–158. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umuc.edu/10.1016/j.infsof.2018.06.014

 

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Hernando Cadet

Hi every one, I obtained a bachelor's degree in Bioinformatics back in 2006, from Claflin University, after I received my bachelor's degree, I gained full time employment as a software engineer at a Video Relay Service company, maintaining databases and developing software for a new developed device called the VPAD.

I worked at that company for two years, then I became a web developer, and worked for a magazine for three years. After that job, I worked as a Drupal web developer, as a subcontractor for the NIH, for a year and then left the job to go back to school.

Hernando Cadet

Collaboratively administrate empowered markets via plug-and-play networks. Dynamically procrastinate B2C users after installed base benefits. Dramatically visualize customer directed convergence without

Collaboratively administrate empowered markets via plug-and-play networks. Dynamically procrastinate B2C users after installed base benefits. Dramatically visualize customer directed convergence without revolutionary ROI.