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computer forensics

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The development phase of an application, have always followed a waterfall method, but later the agile method was also adopted. As one of the oldest methods used, to develop a software, the...

The Reason Why The Internet Works is Due to Great Technologies, Such As FRAD frame relay Assembler/Dissembler

frame relay Assembler/Dissembler

The reason, why we are able to communicate to each other, over the Internet, is thanks, to a series of technologies.

The technologies, which make it a reality for us, to be able to communicate, with each other, were built over time.

It is a good practice, to know and understand these technologies, so that we can to understand, how the Internet works, if you are planning to work with the Internet.

In today’s article, we will be talking about frame relay access device or frame relay assembler/dissembler or simply FRAD.

The FRAD technology, is a box, which encapsulates, or puts a frame relay header and a trail information on, outgoing Internet packets.

Packets are sent to and fro servers all around the world, so that you are able to view, the information, you are looking to see.

FRAD also decapsulates, incoming packets, which means that, FRAD is able to remove frame relay header and trailers, from incoming packets.

Data, in the form of packets, from different protocols, such as Ethernet, X.25 and the Internet Protocol, also known as IP, is collected into frames, or larger units of transmission, by Frame relay.

The data which is collected by frame relay, is then delivered in burst-like mode, over a switched connected to the network.

Now remember, all of this information going back and forth, on the Internet is happening on a network.

We assume, you already understand, that the Internet itself, is a network of computers working together.

The switched connection, is a permanent virtual circuit, also known as PVC.

A permanent virtual network, ensures that packets, always arrive, in the right order, so that they can be reassembled successfully.

Digital trunks, which are inherently reliable, provide high throughput and minimal delay, are used to build today’s communication networks.

The traditional approach to packet switching, results in considerable overhead, because it is used in-band signaling, and it includes end-to-end as well as per-hop flow control and error control.

Frame relay on the other end, is a packet-mode transmission service, which exploits characteristics of modern networks.

Frame relay contain characteristics of modern networks, because it minimized the amount of error detection and recovery performed inside the network.

Therefore, lower delay and higher throughput is achieved, by streamlining communication processes.

When Frame relay is used, features, which can make it ideal, to interconnect LANs, using a Wide Area Network (WAN) is possible.

This was done using private lines, or circuit switching over a leased line.

However, when this method is used, it becomes prohibitively expensive as the size of the network increases – in terms of miles and number of LANs.

High-speed circuits and ports, must be setup on a point-to-point basis between and increasing number of bridges, which drives the cost of this method, very high.

The large amount of traffic, which is typically experienced with LANs, is a factor which must be considered, because circuit-mode connectivity results in a lot of wasted bandwidth.

Traditional X.25 oriented packet switching networks, are too slow, and they entail a lot of protocol overhead.

Frame relay on the other hand, provides the statistical, multiplexing interface of X.25, without the overhead, which you wouldn’t have to worry about.

Frame relay is able to handle, multiple data sessions, on a single access line; therefore, hardware and circuit requirements are reduced, significantly.

Frame relay is also scalable - implementations are available from low bandwidths (eg, 56 kbps), all the way up to T1 ( 1.544 Mbps ) or even T3 ( 45 Mbps ) speeds.

Thank you, for reading this article!!!